*The camera attenuation was set at the maximum.
SUNCELL® DIRECTLY GENERATES ELECTRICITY
The visible-light concentrator thermophotovoltaic SunCell® (cTPV-SunCell®) shown in this photo comprises a plasma cell that injects hydrogen and catalyst, and two electromagnetic pumps serve as electrodes by injecting intersecting molten tin streams from corresponding reservoirs containing 10-12 kg of tin wherein the connected streams carry a low voltage, high current to form a Hydrino®-reaction plasma with an energy release of 200 times that of burning the hydrogen that can be obtained from water as a 0.5% parasitic load. The SunCell® is an optical power source that is mated with a commercial dense receiver array (DRA) comprising an ensemble of concentrator photovoltaics cells (CPV) that operate at 1000 times the light intensity of solar-farm PV cells to produce electrical power for total electrification of essentially all power loads.
Optical power or radiation transfers power at 10 to 100 times the power per area compared to conduction and convection of combustion and nuclear power plants. The 3000-5000K SunCell® plasma emits radiation at a power density of 4.6 to 35 MW/m2, corresponding to an extraordinary 150 kW to 1.14 MW, respectively, transmitted through an 8-inch diameter window. With light recycling, the transmitted radiation incident a CPV DRA can be converted from optical to electrical power at over 50% efficiency enabling extraordinary performance, logistics, low capital cost, and projected electricity costs of less than $0.001/kWh.
SUNCELL® SYSTEM DESIGN PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION
SUNCELL® GENERATOR SYSTEM DESIGN and OPERATION
The SunCell® comprises seven fundamental low-maintenance commercially available systems, some having no moving parts and capable of operating for a decade or more: (i) a sealed reaction cell chamber; (ii) a start-up heater to first melt silver or gallium; (iii) a gas injector to inject water or hydrogen and trace oxygen derived from water wherein the trace oxygen reacts with trace amounts of the hydrogen inventory to form the hydrino catalyst, and the majority of the hydrogen inventory serves as a reactant to form hydrino; (iv) a molten metal injection system comprising at least one electromagnetic pump to inject molten silver or gallium; (v) an ignition system to produce a low-voltage, high current flow across a pair of electrodes which comprise at least one molten metal injector and its injected molten metal stream and a counter electrode injector and its steam or a molten metal pool with a bus bar wherein the at least one stream electrically connects the electrodes to form a brilliant light-emitting plasma; (vi) a power converter: (a) a light to electricity converter comprising a window to transmit light from the reaction cell chamber and a dense receiver array of concentrator photovoltaic (PV) cells that receives the light having an intensity of up to one thousand Suns or (b) a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) converter with an inlet converging diverging nozzle to form a supersonic plasma jet wherein the plasma kinetic energy is converted into electricity; and (vii) a fuel recovery and a thermal management system that causes the molten metal to return to the injection system following ignition.
SUNCELL® SYSTEM DESIGN
Click on this image to learn more about concentrator PV conversion.