There are multiple techniques wherein some alone can prove the existence of hydrino or the hydrino reaction. Link to data summary [Analytical Presentation].
1.) Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy: electron spin flip with spin-orbital coupling and fluxon coupling energies.
2.) Raman spectroscopy: molecular hydrino rotational transitions with spin-orbital coupling and fluxon coupling energies, and rotational-vibrational transitions. Deuterium shifted rotational transitions with spin-orbital coupling and fluxon coupling energies. Raman peaks matching those of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs).
3.) High resolution visible spectroscopy of H–(1/2) binding and fluxon coupling energies.
4.) Infrared spectroscopy: application of a magnetic field permits molecular rotational infrared excitation by coupling to the aligned magnetic dipole of H2(1/4).
5.) Electron beam emission spectroscopy: rotational-vibrational energies of molecular hydrino with spin-orbital coupling and fluxon coupling energies.
6.) Gas chromatography: faster migration than any know gas, higher thermal conductivity than that of any known gas.
7.) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: total bonding energy of hydrino of 496 eV with only a single peak corresponding to a single molecular orbital.
8.) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy: extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation with a 10.1 nm cutoff corresponding to the hydrino reaction transition H to H(1/4) and optical power of 20 MW.
9.) ToF SIMs shows K(K2CO3:H2)x+ polymers and intense H– due to the stability of hydrino hydride ion.
10.) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry: upfield shifted NMR peak and superparamagnetism due to the unpaired electron of molecular hydrino.
11.) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): inorganic hydrino compounds behaving like organic molecules.
12.) Energetics of hydrino reaction: high resolution visible spectroscopy of extraordinary H Doppler and Stark line broadening, H excited state line inversion, shock wave development much greater than that of TNT, solid fuels calorimetry, electrochemical power, plasma afterglow, 340 kW level SunCell<sup>®</sup> power development, and 93 kW SunCell<sup>®</sup> continuous steam production.
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Hydrino and subsequently molecular hydrino H2(1/4) was formed by catalytic reaction of atomic hydrogen with the resonant energy acceptor of 3×27.2 eV, nascent H2O, wherein the reaction rate was greatly increased by applying an arc current to recombine ions and electrons formed by the energy transfer to HOH that is consequently ionized. Excess power at the 340 kW level was measured by water and molten metal bath calorimetry. In addition to calorimetry, the energetics of the hydrino reaction was characterized by multiple methods. Samples predicted to comprise molecular hydrino H2(1/4) product were analyzed by multiple analytical methods. .
H2(1/4) comprises an unpaired electron which enables the electronic structure of this unique hydrogen molecular state to be determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Specially, the H2(1/4) EPR spectrum comprises a principal peak with a g-factor of 2.0046386 that is split into a series of pairs of peaks with members separated by spin-orbital coupling energies that are a function of the corresponding electron spin-orbital coupling quantum numbers. The unpaired electron magnetic moment induces a diamagnetic moment in the paired electron of the H2(1/4) molecular orbital based on the diamagnetic susceptibility of H2(1/4). The corresponding magnetic moments of the intrinsic paired-unpaired current interactions and those due to relative rotational motion about the internuclear axis give rise to the spin-orbital coupling energies. The EPR spectral results confirmed the spin-orbital coupling between the spin magnetic moment of the unpaired electron and an orbital diamagnetic moment induced in the paired electron by the unpaired electron that shifted the flip energy of the spin magnetic moment. Each spin-orbital splitting peak was further sub-split into a series of equally spaced peaks that matched integer fluxon energies that are a function of the electron fluxon quantum number corresponding to the number of angular momentum components involved in the transition. The evenly spaced series of sub-splitting peaks was assigned to flux linkage in units of the magnetic flux quantum h/2e during the coupling between the paired and unpaired magnetic moments while a spin flip transition occurred. Additionally, the spin-orbital splitting increased with spin-orbital coupling quantum number on the downfield side of the series of pairs of peaks due to magnetic energies that increased with accumulated magnetic flux linkage by the molecular orbital. These EPR results were first observed at TU Delft by Dr. Hagen.
The pattern of integer-spaced peaks of the EPR spectrum of H2(1/4) is very similar to the periodic pattern observed in the high-resolution visible spectrum of the hydrino hydride ion reported previously. The hydrino hydride ion comprising a paired and unpaired electron in a common atomic orbital also demonstrated the phenomena of flux linkage in quantized units of h/2e. Moreover, the same phenomena were observed when the rotational energy levels of H2(1/4) were excited by laser irradiation during Raman spectroscopy and by collisions of high energy electrons form an electron beam with H2(1/4). It is extraordinary that the EPR, Raman, and electron-beam excitation spectra give the same information about the structure of molecular hydrino in energy ranges that differ by reciprocal of the H2(1/4) diamagnetic susceptibility coefficient: 1/7X10-7 = 1.4X106, wherein the induced diamagnetic orbital magnetic moment active during EPR was replaced by the orbital molecular rotational magnetic moment active during Raman and electron-beam excitation of rotational transitions.
Josephson junctions such as ones of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) link magnetic flux in quantized units of the magnetic flux quantum or fluxon h/2e. The same behavior was predicted and observed for the linkage of magnetic flux by hydrino hydride ion and molecular hydrino controlled by applying specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation over the range of microwave to ultraviolet. The hydrino species such as H2(1/4) is enabling of a computer logic gate or memory element that operates at even elevated temperature versus cryogenic ones and may be a single molecule 43 or 64 times smaller than molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrino comprising a magnetic hydrogen molecule enables many other applications in other fields as well. A gaseous contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is but one example.
Specifically, the exemplary Raman transition rotation is about a semiminor axis perpendicular to the internuclear axis. The intrinsic electron spin angular momentum aligns either parallel or perpendicular to the corresponding molecular rotational angular momentum along the molecular rotational axis, and a concerted rotation of the spin current occurs during the molecular rotational transition. The interaction of the corresponding magnetic moments of the intrinsic spin and the molecular rotation give rise to the spin-orbital coupling energies that are a function of the spin-orbital quantum number. The Raman spectral results confirmed the spin-orbital coupling between the spin magnetic moment of the unpaired electron and the orbital magnetic moment due to molecular rotation. The energies of the rotational transitions were shifted by these spin-orbital coupling energies as a function of the corresponding electron spin-orbital coupling quantum numbers. Molecular rotational peaks shifted by spin-orbital energies are further shifted by fluxon linkage energies with each energy corresponding to its electron fluxon quantum number dependent on the number of angular momentum components involved in the rotational transition. The observed sub-splitting or shifting of Raman spectral peaks was assigned to flux linkage in units of the magnetic flux quantum h/2e during the spin-orbital coupling between spin and molecular rotational magnetic moments while the rotational transition occurred.
Predicted H2(1/4) UV Raman peaks recorded on the hydrino complex GaOOH:H2(1/4):H2O were observed in the 14,000-15,000 cm-1 region wherein the complexed water suppressed intense fluorescence of the 325 nm laser. All of the novel lines matched H2(1/4) rotational transitions with spin-orbital coupling and fluxon linkage splittings. Ten of the observed Raman lines match those of unassignable astronomical lines associated with the interstellar medium called diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). All of the 380 DIBs listed by Hobbs to H2(1/4) were assigned to rotational transitions with spin-orbital splitting and fluxon sub-splitting. Molecular hydrino rotational transitional energies cover a broad range of frequencies from infrared to ultraviolet which enables molecular lasers spanning the corresponding wavelengths.
The rotational energies are dependent on the reduced mass which changed by a factor of 3/4 upon substitution of one deuteron for one proton of molecular hydrino H2(1/4) to form HD(1/4). The rotational energies of the HD(1/4) Raman spectrum shifted relative to that of H2(1/4) as predicted.
Akin to the case of molecular hydrino H2(1/4) trapped in a GaOOH lattice that serves as cages for essentially free gas EPR spectra, H2(1/4) in a noble gas mixture provides an interaction-free environment to observe ro-vibrational spectra. H2(1/4)-noble gas mixtures that were irradiated with high energy electrons of an electron beam showed equal, 0.25 eV spaced line emission in the ultraviolet (150-180 nm) region with a cutoff at that matched the H2(1/4) 1 to 0 vibrational transition with a series of rotational transitions corresponding to the H2(1/4) P-branch. In addition, small satellite lines were observed that matched the rotational spin-orbital splitting energies that were also observed by Raman spectroscopy.
The spectral emission of the H2(1/4) P-branch rotational transitions with the 1 to 0 vibrational transition was also observed by electron beam excitation of H2(1/4) trapped in a KCl crystalline matrix. The rotational peaks matched that of a free rotor, whereas the vibrational energy was shifted by the increase in the effective mass due to interaction of the vibration of H2(1/4) with the KCl matrix.
Using Raman spectroscopy with a high energy laser, a series of 1000 cm-1 (0.1234 eV) equal-energy spaced Raman peaks were observed in the 8000 cm-1 to 18,000 cm-1 region wherein conversion of the Raman spectrum into the fluorescence or photoluminescence spectrum revealed a match as the second order ro-vibrational spectrum of H2(1/4) corresponding to the e-beam excitation emission spectrum of H2(1/4) in a KCl matrix comprising the matrix shifted 1 to 0 vibrational transition with 0.25 eV energy-spaced rotational transition peaks.
Infrared transitions of H2(1/4) are forbidden because of its symmetry that lacks an electric dipole moment. However, it was observed that application of a magnetic field permitted molecular rotational infrared excitation by coupling to the aligned magnetic dipole of H2(1/4).
The allowed double ionization of H2(1/4) by the Compton effect corresponding to the total energy of 496 eV was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on samples comprising H2(1/4) due the reaction of H with HOH with incorporation in crystalline inorganic and metallic lattices.
H2(1/4) was further observed by gas chromatography that showed a gas from hydrino producing reactions with a faster migration rate than that of any known gas considering that hydrogen and helium have the fastest prior known migration rates and corresponding shortest retention times. Molecular hydrino may serve as a cryogen, a gaseous heat transfer agent, and an agent for buoyancy.
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy recorded extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation with a 10.1 nm cutoff corresponding to the hydrino reaction transition H to H(1/4) catalyzed by HOH catalyst.
MAS NMR of molecular hydrino trapped in protic matrix represents a means to exploit the unique magntic characteristic of molecular hydrino for its identification via its interaction with the matrix. A unique consideration regarding the NMR spectrum is the possible molecular hydrino quantum states. Proton magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MAS NMR) recorded an upfield matrix-water peak in the -4 ppm to -5 ppm region, the signature of the unpaired electron of molecular hydrino and the resulting magnetic moment.
Molecular hydrino may give rise to bulk magnetism such as paramagnetism, superparamagnetism and even ferromagnetism when the magnetic moments of a plurality of hydrino molecules interact cooperatively. Superparamagnetism was observed using a vibrating sample magnetometer to measure the magnetic susceptibility of compounds comprising molecular hydrino.
Complexing of H2(1/4) gas to inorganic compounds comprising oxyanions such a K2CO3 and KOH was confirmed by the unique observation of M + 2 multimer units such as K+(H2:K2CO3)n and K+(H2:KOH)n wherein n is an integer by exposing K2CO3 and KOH to a molecular hydrino gas source and running time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and electrospray time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ESI-ToF and the hydrogen content was identified as H2(1/4) by other analytical techniques. In addition to inorganic polymers such as K+(H2:K2CO3)n, the ToF-SIMS spectra showed an intense H– peak due to the stability of hydrino hydride ion.
HPLC showed inorganic hydrino compounds behaving like organic molecules as evidenced by a chromatographic peak on an organic molecular matrix column that fragmented into inorganic ions.
Signatures of the high energetics and power release of the hydrino reaction were evidenced by (i) extraordinary Doppler line broadening of the H Balmer a line of over 100 eV in plasmas that comprised H atoms and HOH or H catalyst such as argon-H2, H2, and H2O vapor plasmas, (ii) H excited state line inversion, (iii) anomalous H plasma afterglow duration, (iv) shockwave propagation velocity and the corresponding pressure equivalent to about 10 times more moles of gunpowder with only about 1% of the power coupling to the shockwave, (v) optical power of up to 20 MW, and (vi) calorimetry of hydrino solid fuels, hydrino electrochemical cells, and the SunCell® wherein the latter was validated at a power level of 340,000 W. The H inversion, optical, and shock effects of the hydrino reaction have practical applications of an atomic hydrogen laser, light sources of high power in the EUV and other spectral regions, and novel more powerful and non-sensitive energetic materials, respectively. The power balance was measured by the change in the thermal inventory of a water bath. Following a power run of a duration limited by nearly reaching the melting point of SunCell® components, the heat of the SunCell® was transferred to a water bath, and the increase in thermal inventory of the water bath was quantified by recording the bath temperature rise and the water lost to steam by measuring the water weight loss. The SunCell® was fitted to continuously operate with water bath cooling, and the continuous excess power due to the hydrino reaction was validated at a level of 100,000 W.
These analytical tests confirm the existence of hydrino, a smaller more stable form of hydrogen formed by the release of power at power densities exceeding that of other known power sources. Brilliant Light Power is developing the proprietary SunCell® to harness this green power source, initially for thermal applications, and then electrical. The energetic plasma formed by the hydrino reaction enables novel direct power conversion technologies in addition to conventional Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling cycles. A novel magnetohydrodynamic cycle has potential for electrical power generation at 23 MW/liter power densities at greater than 90% efficiency.