The visible-light concentrator thermophotovoltaic SunCell® (cTPV-SunCell®) shown in this photo comprises a plasma cell that injects hydrogen and catalyst, and two electromagnetic pumps serve as electrodes by injecting intersecting molten tin streams from corresponding reservoirs containing 10-12 kg of tin wherein the connected streams carry a low voltage, high current to form a Hydrino®-reaction plasma with an energy release of 200 times that of burning the hydrogen that can be obtained from water as a 0.5% parasitic load. The SunCell® is an optical power source that is mated with a commercial dense receiver array (DRA) comprising an ensemble of concentrator photovoltaics cells (CPV) that operate at 1000 times the light intensity of solar-farm PV cells to produce electrical power for total electrification of essentially all power loads.
Optical power or radiation transfers power at 10 to 100 times the power per area compared to conduction and convection of combustion and nuclear power plants. The 3000-5000K SunCell® plasma emits radiation at a power density of 4.6 to 35 MW/m2, corresponding to an extraordinary 150 kW to 1.14 MW, respectively, transmitted through an 8-inch diameter window. With light recycling, the transmitted radiation incident a CPV DRA can be converted from optical to electrical power at over 50% efficiency enabling extraordinary performance, logistics, low capital cost, and projected electricity costs of less than $0.001/kWh.
The thickness of the SunCell’s® refractory liner was increased to allow the internal temperature to reach 3000K in regions. The refractory lined reaction cell chamber serves as a blackbody cavity that equilibrates to reach a uniform temperature to serve as a blackbody radiator of a controlled temperature selected to maximize the conversion efficiency of the DRA that exploits light recycling to produce electricity at high efficiency.